Turkmenistan covers an area of approximately 488,100 sq km with a terrain consisting of flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south, and low mountains along the border with Iran. Turkmenistan borders Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and is completely landlocked (though it borders the Caspian Sea in the west). The country is divided into 5 provinces (Ahal Welayaty, Balkan Welayaty, Dashoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty and Mary Welayaty) and one independent city (Ashgabat). Ashgabat is the capital, with a time difference of 5 hours ahead of GMT. The currency is the Turkmen manat, and exports include oil, gas, textiles and raw cotton. The population of approximately 4,900,000 people comprises an ethnic makeup that is 85% Turkmen. The primary languages are Turkmen and Russian, and the predominant religion is Islam.